1st Border Guard Reg. (Estnische SS-Grenzschutz Regiment nr 1)

Formation

The aviation force officer, Major Elmar Adof, began the formation of the 1st Border Guard Regiment in February 1944. Soon the formation was taken over by Major Jaan Tamm, the leader of the Estonian Military School 2nd Aspirants company and the rector of the Military School. Jaan Tamm was also appointed to the regiment leader's position. He was born on July 6, 1894 in Vana-Võidu, Viljandi County. He graduated school in 1913, was promoted to officer on August 19, 1918 in infantry specialty. He served in the Estonian military from November 1918. In 1924 the Junior Lieutenant Tamm, who was serving at the Military School, was promoted to Lieutenant. In 1930 he served at the Single Scouts Infantry Battalion and was promoted to Captain and with the head of state's ordinance to Major in February 1937. The regiment's headquarters leader was Captain August Kolk. The headquarters' pioneer unit was led by Lieutenant Elmar Post. Adjutant and hunters' command leader was Lieutenant Endel Rennit. The regiment's headquarters was on Pikk Street in Rakvere in the building of a primary school.

The staff of the 1st Battalion and headquarters company was put together in Rakvere. A number of former forest brothers from Viru Country joined the battalion. The battalion's leader was Captain Aleksander Veelma and the adjutant was Lieutenant Evald Tammaru. Senior Lieutenant Armil-Johannes Looga, the German Partisan Battalion officer and journalist, became the leader of the headquarters company.

The formation of the 2nd Battalion was started by Lieutenant Henn Heinaru in Tallinn, but was finished by the future leader of the Battalion and Senior Captain, Eduard Ausmees. The Battalion was formed in the rooms of the Luther factory. The Battalion's 7th Company was formed in Paide.

Major Elmar Adof and Lieutenant Villu Mere started the formation of the 3rd Battalion. The formation was finished by one of the leaders of Erna II, Major Raimond Hindpere. The Battalion's adjutant was the former officer of the Kalev Battalion, Lieutenant Eerik Varrak. The core of the Battalion was made up of the men from the former Erna group. Since the formed Battalion didn't get any motorized vehicles, Lieutenant Evald Põdra, who was in charge of the Battalion's economy, had to obtain these on his own from civilians.

The biggest problem of the regiment was its equipment. The weapons were old and in bad shape. The unit had no submachine guns. Regular machine guns were old and didn't have any working security. The situation improved later, but this was mainly thanks to the Estonians' initiative. The Estonians also had big problems with the military uniforms. These were often distributed based on the lists, without trying them on. Thus the men had to change the uniforms later amongst themselves so that each would get as normal clothes as possible.

To the Front

The regiment was put together fast and there was no time to train the men. Already on February 25, 1944 the 2nd Battalion was sent to the front and on February 29 the Battalion took over an area on the front from the Germans in Värska area, southeast of Kolpino island and near the villages of Malõi-Drislivik and Bolshoi-Drislivik. The Battalion's command point was situated in Kulje village on a cape with the same name. At the same time the 1st Battalion was sent to the west bank of Lake Pihkva as a coast guard unit in the Berezje-Krasnaja Gora area. The headquarters of the 1st Battalion was in Lisje village in the cape creek of Lake Pihkva, southeast of Krasnaja Gora. On February 27 the 3rd Battalion was loaded on a train in Rakvere station. February 29, 1944 the 3rd Battalion reached Petseri where it was unloaded. The headquarters of the 1st Border Guard Regiment was situated in Mikitamäe village and operatively the regiment was subjected to the 24th Infantry Division (later to the 12th Luftwaffe Field Division). March 2 the 3rd Battalion's 10th, 11th and 12th Company took over the German positions on the Kolpino island in Lake Pihkva, Lieutenant Viktor Koob's 9th Company remained in reserve in Laossina village's coast. The Battalion was there until May. The Battalion suffered a loss on the first night when the intelligence unit sent out from Kolpino island at night encountered the Russian ambush on Lake Peipsi ice. The Battalion lost 11 men.

In March the 1st Battalion gave the Lisje-Budovitsõ area to the 2nd Battalion. Thus the 2nd Battalion's defence line became almost 8 kilometers longer. The 2nd Battalion leader, Captain Ausmees, filed a complaint about the defence line's length to the division's headquarters, but nothing changed.

When the regiment had been on the front for a couple of months and the situation with supplying them with clothes had not improved, the 3rd Battalion's economy leader, Lieutenant Põdra, drove to Võru on his own initiative to see the army's commissary. The latter wasn't very convinced about the Estonian soldiers' bad situation, but agreed to come and see the situation himself. The 10th Company, which was commanded to the line up, wore its worst uniforms and the sight was so bad that the whole regiment received descent clothes a week later.

The 3rd Battalion and a part of the 2nd Battalion were taken to Russia, to the south bank of Lake Pihkva at the beginning of May. The 1st Battalion remained in Southeastern Estonia, on the west bank of Lake Pihkva, and its defence area included the islands Kamenka and Semsk. The 3rd Battalion was situated in the coast defence in Velikaja river delta's area. The 3rd Battalion's command point was in Malaja Listovka village. The 2nd Battalion's command point was in Anohhova village. The regiment's headquarters was in Holohhalnja manor, which was in Estonia, a few kilometers from the Russian border. The regiment was subjected to the 13th Luftwaffe Field Division. The 3rd Division's front area began from west, on the southern bank of Lake Pihkva between the villages Poddubje and Malaja Listovka, then towards east over the Velikaja river delta with the islands until Maltova village. The Battalion's headquarters was in Malaja Listovka village.

June 22, 1944 the Red Army began its great summer offensive. During this offensive General Jerjomenko's 2nd Baltic front from the Pihkva-Vitebski area began attack. Its attacking direction was towards Dünaburg (Daugavpils) and Riga. In order to do so, the Russians had to break through the so-called Panther line, which ran from Lake Pihkva's east edge to Vitebsk. In the month-long battles the predominant Russians managed to conquer the Ostrov town and thus break through the Panther line. Two attack wedges broke through the opening – one across the Estonian-Latvian border over Laura and then towards Vastseliina-Võru, the other headed towards Marienburg (Aluksne)-Võnnu after conquering Lipno crossroad. In this situation holding on to Pihkva became pointless to Germans and on July 23 the town was abandoned without a fight and the units retreated to Marienburg defence line, which ran from Lake Peipsi along Optjok river over Laura, Aluksne and Gulbene.

After Pihkva was taken over the 1st Boarder Guard Regiment received an order to abandon its current positions and take new positions in Verhuulitsa-Värska area. The unit was then subjected to General Graf Bogislaw von Schwerin's 207th Security Division.

August 10 the 3rd Baltic front units began attack on the whole Marienburg line and broke through it already on the first day, since the Russians were 4,3 times bigger in human resource, 4,1 times bigger in armored forces and 14,8 times bigger in artillery. The 67th Army kept on moving towards Võru, the 1st Attack Army headed towards Rõuge. The 116th shooters corps under the 67th Army conquered Petseri on August 11. Thus the 1st Border Guard Regiment's 1st Battalion quickly retreated back to Krupp village line from the Optjok river defence. August 12 the 14th Guard Army's shooters corps' units conquered unexpectedly Rõuge. German defence was then broken through from several places and on August 13 they lost Võru.

The First Battles

August 13 the 72nd single machine guns and artillery battalion attacked the German defence near Optjok river and Karbilova village where the 1st Border Guard Regiment's 1st Battalion's 1st and 2nd companies, under the 25th Luftwaffe grenadier regiment, were on positions. The Estonians were in a serious battle for the first time, got confused for a moment and retreated, but soon began a counterattack and restored the positions. Then they received an order to retreat towards Värska and began a defence on the eastern bank of Lake Värska against Värska small borough. The 31st company from the Kamenka island also arrived. Although on the same night, the night of August 14, they once again received an order to retreat, this time to Karisilla area where the 1st Battalion was again subjected to the 1st Border Guard Regiment. They started a defence east of Karisilla village. In the evening of August 15 Russians were beaten back from Karisilla crossroad and the battalion suffered great losses in a rough battle. Then they received the order to retreat again. The battalion moved over Mikitamäe-Kahkva-Paluküla-Pahtpää to Rahumäe. On August 15 the 2nd and 3rd battalions were also in battle with the enemy.

August 16, 1944 the regiment took its defence positions on the lower reaches of Võhandu river. The line was clearly too long for the regiment with a small number of men – the length was 14 kilometers! The 3rd Battalion stood from the mouth of Võhandu river until Räpina (including Võõpsu), the 2nd Battalion from Räpina to Toolmaa area, the 1st Battalion from Toolmaa to Leevakun (including the latter). From Leevaku the 94th Security Regiment was on its positions. The regiment's command point was set up 1,5 kilometers from the forefront – to Raadma village.

By 10 o'clock in the morning the Red Army units were in front of the regiment's positions. The 72nd single machine guns and artillery battalion attacked Võõpsu, the 261st single machine gun and artillery battalion attacked Räpina and the 40th single machine guns and artillery battalion attacked Leevaku and Toolmaa. After the battle had lasted for several hours, the Russians managed to break into the 3rd Battalion's defence in Räpina for a brief moment, but the 11th Company, led by Richard Saaliste, beat back the Russians in a counterattack with severe losses. An especially strong battle took place in Toolmaa area, in the 1st Battalion 4th Company's area, but the Mongols were not successful there either. To justify their inefficiency, the Russian commanders announced to the military board that they had already been kicked away from their positions with "a counterattack with the support of 12 tanks"… Additional comments are unnecessary… The 11th intelligence battalion under the 11th SS Panzer Grenadier Division Nordland was in the area but they had armored machines to use, not tanks.

Around 4 p.m. regiment leader Major Tamm received an announcement that the Russian tanks had cut off the Tartu-Räpina highway and Mooste and Põlva had been conquered. Cutting the highway off meant only one thing: the 94th Security Regiment on the regiment's right wing had retreated and there was a serious threat to be surrounded, since the Russians had performed a successful landing operation at night behind the regiment's back in between Mehikoorma and Jõepera. When the night came, the division sent a command to retreat. During the night all battalions left the positions and moved quickly towards Rasina. The horse wagons in front of the division happened to get on a minefield around 5 a.m. in the swampy road in the forest between Raadma-Rasina and a lot of men and horses were killed. Clearing the road took time and the unit moved on in daytime. The saddest thing about it was that the mines were placed by the regiment's own pioneer unit, but in the dark the men leading the horse wagons did not see the mines in time. The regiment's colon, which was moving onwards in daytime, was attacked by the Russian planes from the air and one time they had to battle with Russian outposts in order to move on because the latter had closed the Estonians' last retreating road. The regiment arrived to Rasina by midday where the German units were having a defence battle. The regiment's main forces had just happily crossed the Lääniste bridge over Ahja river when the Russian bombers destroyed it. The regiment's covering forces crossed the river by an improvised bridge after a short battle with the Russian outposts. The regiment's 3rd Battalion and a part of the 2nd Battalion, led by Major Hindpere, were left on the west bank of Ahja river with the assignment to stop the Russians from crossing the river. The regiment took the following positions by August 17: the 3rd Battalion from Lake Ahijärve to Lääniste bridge, the 2nd Battalion from Lääniste bridge to Ibaste village, the 1st Battalion from Ibaste village to Kadaja bridge.

Lääniste Battle

The 3rd Battalion had hardly managed to take and secure its positions near Lääniste when in the morning of August 18 the Russians (the 191st shooters' divison) began to attack. The attack began with the destructive fire of the mine throwers and assault cannons. After this the Russians began to attack. The main target of the attack was the 11th Company's area. The Asiatic massive attack was stopped by the 11th Company's blocking and the 9th and 10th Company's outflanking fire, the Russians' "hurray!" soon turned into whining and moaning, the retreating enemy left behind hundreds of dead bodies. After the first attack totally failed, the Russians performed another fire attack over the whole battalion's area. But the second mass attack collapsed, 11th Company's leader Lieutenant Richard Saaliste was wounded in thigh by a Russian submachine gun in a close combat. The company's leading was taken over by Ensign Raimond Vainlo.

At the same time a fierce battle near Ahja was taking place where the 1st Battalion, led by Captain Veelma, was on defence positions. Unexpectedly the German unit on the 1st Battalion's right wing retreated as soon as the Russians appeared and didn't battle at all. The 86th shooters' division took advantage of it and began to force Ahja river and took its units passed the Estonian wing. Captain Veelma had no other choice but to begin an attack. The 1st Battalion gave a quick counterattack to Russians, barred the breakthrough and cleared the Russian riverbank. Since a large number of human resources and tanks had passed Estonians, the battalion's positions became dangerous and the unit had to retreat to Võnnu small borough. By the evening of August 18 the regiment's other battalions were brought there as well.

Since only rags were left of the 207th Security Division by that time, a new battle groups was formed to protect Tartu and stop the enemy. SS-Brigadeführer Jürgen Wagner (on the photo), the leader of the 4th SS Panzer Grenadier Brigade Nederland and Waffen-SS General Major, was appointed to lead the unit.

Võnnu Battle

From then on the regiment was subjected to the "Wagner's battle group", which's task was to stop the enemy on Emajõe River line and protect Tartu. By August 18 the regiment had taken new positions: the regiment's battle units were placed in a curve shaped like a horseshoe 3 to 4 kilometers in front of Võnnu. The units were placed like so because the enemy was expected to attack from every direction, not only from north. The regiment's headquarters was set up in Võnnu schoolhouse. There were no other German units in the village. Near the garden of the schoolhouse was an old cemetery which was surrounded by a stone fence. The 1st Battalion's two companies took their positions behind this stone fence. These positions were not the best ones for defence but the Estonians had no other choice. Behind the schoolhouse, towards south, the ground was rising about a hundred meters until the forest. Because of the forest there wasn't enough firing space in front of the weapons. The enemy's guard posts could have seen the whole schoolhouse's garden and observe the defending company's actions on top of high spruce and pine trees. At the same time their snipers could have aimed every moving soldier. Lieutenant Voldemar Karja placed two PAKs behind the schoolhouse in a way that Russian tanks coming out of the forest would be faced with direct fire. The unit missed the regiment's battery, which on General Wagner's command was given to Rebane's battle group. The headquarters company's mine throwers group placed its four pipes in the schoolyard but they had ammunition for only a few shots. The regiment's left neighbor was one German regiment and the right neighbor was the 5th Border Guard Regiment under the command of Colonel Johannes Raudmäe.

In the early morning of August 19 the Russians gave a preventive fire attack to the Estonians positions. The missiles came down like hail. Despite the losses on the forefront the Estonians managed to beat back the two attacks that followed the fire attack. Around 1.30 p.m. the Russians attacked the schoolhouse again and the companies on the edge of the forest. This weakened the Estonians' forces and during the following attack they had to retreat to their backup positions near Võnnu. The unit didn't retreat anymore and the following Russian attack died in Estonians' blocking fire.

At night Major Tamm received an order to retake the initial positions in the morning. They were promised to get 4 tanks for help. At 10.50 a.m. the Germans began a weak preparatory fire on the Russian positions. The tanks also arrived but only two. At 11 a.m. regiment leader Major Tamm personally took the regiment to attack. The Major himself remained standing on the mountain crest, pointing a direction to each attacking unit with a stick. He remained there for the whole battle, despite the fact that there he was the perfect target for Russians. The German tankers were amazed of this kind of recklessness. The Russian marksmen's bullets pierced his pants cloth and sleeves several times and one bullet took away his left shoulder strap but he himself wasn't hit.

Although one of the two tanks lost its pipe, the Estonians managed to retake their positions. The rest of the day was spent beating back the Russians' attacks. Many officers were killed by Russian snipers. The 1st Battalion leader Veelma was injured that day. The regiment lost 131 men within two days and 600 were wounded. The imprisoned Russians told that 4 regiments had been crushed in front of Võnnu.

At five o'clock the regiment received an order: abandon Võnnu at 8 p.m. The new positions had to be taken on both sides of Tartu-Räpina highway on the line of Terikese-Uniküla. The new neighbors of the regiment on its new position were the battle group Rebane and the 3rd Battalion from the 5th Border Guard Regiment.

On the early morning of August 21 the Russians attacked the 5th Border Guard Regiment's positions and forced the Estonians to retreat a few hundred meters and thus conquered the strategically important Hammaste-Pakaste-Uniküla crossroad and made a wedge in between the border guard regiments. In the afternoon of August 21 both border guard regiments began a counterattack with the aim to retake the crossroad. The regiment's batteries made a fire attack on the crossroad, the infantry cannons destroyed the enemy's fire points and the road was reopened for infantry attack. The enemy was forced to retreat with a quick attack, they took prisoners and plunder weapons. But 40 Estonian soldiers were killed in the battle and one of them was the 9th Company leader, Lieutenant Koop, who died because of his wounds in Tallinn. Another killed soldier was war writer Pilt. Major Tamm received the Iron Cross for retaking of the crossroad.

Protecting Tartu

But the victory did not improve the situation. The front was torn apart in several places and to avoid being trapped in a pocket, they had to retreat. August 23 the regiment had a fierce blocking battle on Tamme-Melliste line. August 24 a small battle took place in Vana-Kastre and Luunja space. The regiment crossed Luunja bridge on the night of August 25 and the bridge was then blown up. Regiment's battery Lieutenant Valter Koppermann led the retreat on Kavastu bridge over Emajõgi river and the bridge was then blown up by Rebane's men.

August 25 the regiment took defence positions in Annemõisa area. Major Hindpere's 3rd Battalion was near Emajõgi river, from Sõbra Street to Rõõmu Road. The area from Rõõmu Road to Annemõisa was protected by the 2nd Battalion. The 1st Battalion and the headquarters company were left in reserve. At 9 o'clock in the morning the intelligence announced that the Russians had invaded Tartu from north and were moving in the direction of the Raadi manor. Loud battle sounds were heard from Raadi manor around noon, the 11th East Prussian infantry division's 23rd regiment was having retreating battle there. At the same time the Russians tried to break through the 1st Border Guard Regiment's defence line. The 330th shooters unit crossed Emajõgi river near the river harbor on an improvised bridge made of forest materials and the unit immediately turned right, moving towards Anne and Lohkva manors. There they had to face the Estonians' defence fire and the Russians had to retreat in a hurry – 71 men were killed and 431 wounded in the Estonians' fire.

August 26 the Russian artillery fired strongly on the Estonian defence line and it was followed by the infantry's attack. Several attacks were beaten back, but eventually the Russians managed to break into Estonian defence in several places. In some areas close combats took place. But the 11th SS Panzer Grenadier Division Nordland's 11th attack cannons division interference on time changed the situation in the battle. When the battle ended in the evening, the Estonians were on their initial positions and the enemy had been beaten back.

August 27 the Russians tried again and this time they almost succeeded in breaking through. The attack began with the Russian artillery's massive firing over the whole defence line. The one-hour attack hit the 2nd Battalion's positions especially hard, the battalion's command point was destroyed and thus the unified leading stopped. This was followed by the infantry's great force's attack which was supported by a large number of tanks. After a fierce attack the Russians did manage to break through the 11th Company's positions. Tanks broke through the breakthrough place and for a short period of time Lohkva was in the hands of the Russians. The German anti-tank cannons operated extremely cold-heartedly in the momentary mess. They let the Russian tanks, which had passed the infantry, go by their positions calmly, didn't fire and didn't give away their positions. Then they turned the cannons around and destroyed all tanks one by one. This allowed the Estonians to take a short break, Major Tamm gathered an attack group and barred the breakthrough place. The Russians suffered great losses in this battle, but the Estonians also had losses – the regiment's size had decreased to 1,5 battalion. In addition, 11 regiment's soldiers were later sentenced to death in war court because they had retreated from their positions without a permission. It was obvious that they didn't have enough men to protect the area and the regiment needed to be replaced and rest.

New Positions

The exhausted regiment was replaced by Rebane's battle group on August 28 and their new defence area was Emajõgi river's bank west of Lake Peipsi until Saage. The division leader, Graf von Schwerin, hoped this way to give the men a chance to rest but in reality they were sent to hell. And the new line was 16,5 kilometers long! Fortunately the regiment received 600 men as addition, otherwise we couldn't be discussing any kind of defence here. Surprisingly the regiment did not receive the 87th German Division, which was in reserve in Alatskivi space, but the Estonian pioneer battalion, led by Major August Kitsapea, and one Tartu Self-Defence battalion, led by Major August Uder. But both units had not been "christened" yet and their weapons were worse than the regiment's.

The pioneer battalion was placed near Emajõgi river delta on a swampy land where the danger of being attacked was small. The 1st Battalion, led by Captain Veelmaa, was on the right wing of the pioneer battalion, then came the 3rd Battalion, which's command point was in Kavastu manor. The 3rd Battalion's neighbor was the German 94th reserve regiment. Their line reached to Luunja. From Luunja to Lohkva village was the area of the 5th Border Guard Regiment's 1st and 2nd battalions. From Lohkva village to the Russians' Tartu bridgehead was Rebane's battle group, which's lineup included the 5th Border Guard Regiment's 3rd Battalion. On the other side of the river the Estonian Shooters' Corps gathered its forces. The songs "Eestimaa, su mehemeel" and "Eestimaa, mu isamaa" were played from speakerphones in addition to invites to switch sides.

The Swan Song

The morning of September 17 began with a powerful firing of the Russian and Estonian Shooters' Corps artillery. The firing lasted for an hour and 15 minutes and was very accurate. The regiment's defence positions were almost made nonexistent. Many men were killed, almost all company leaders died during the first 30 minutes. When the cannon fire became calmer, the Russians began to force the river on rubber boats. Single working machine gun nests tried to resist. Numerous Russians were killed but new ones kept on coming. The Russians who crossed the river were stuck in the 3rd Battalion's positions, but the same time the ones coming from behind kept on pressing and formed a mass which was a perfect target for Estonians – each shot was lethal. Suddenly the men from the 94th reserve regiment on Major Hindpere's right wing raised their hands! A hole was made in the defence line and the Russian infantry and tanks stormed through it. The battle became chaotic and uncontrolled, at 8.19 a.m. the 3rd Battalion's command point was destroyed in Kavastu manor.

At 9 a.m. the first Russians reached the regiment's headquarters and began to attack. The remains of the 2nd Battalion were battling near the headquarters. The remains of the 1st Battalion found themselves in a pocket and there was no hope to escape because the Russians were everywhere and there was so many of them. The remains of the regiment, about 400 men, reached Koosa by 11 a.m. in small groups. The regiment leader, Major Tamme, was not among the escapers. Division leader General von Schwerin had been killed too. The division was taken over by Colonel Paul Callas who gathered the last men near Koosa and gave the enemy yet another battle. After the battle they retreated over Koosa river. Out of the 3,000 Estonians who were near Emajõgi river in the morning, 170 arrived to Alatskivi by the evening. The Russians lost more than 6,000 and a large number of Russian battle technology was destroyed. But the regiment didn't exist anymore. It had its only loss in the battle and during the next days a large number of survivors separated and became forest brothers.

Later investigations have proved that Major Tamm did get out of Emajõgi hell alive. He didn't go to the West but managed to keep his identity hidden from the Soviet authorities for a long time. He lived in Rapla and for a long time was the leader of the local Executive Committees communal department. Later he was identified and interrogated in the Petseri self-defenders' court hearing (1971) but he wasn't convicted for his wartime actions. According to Vello Salo, he died in 1977 in Estonia.

The headquarters company leader, Senior Lieutenant Armil-Johannes Looga, was imprisoned on September 17 in a battle and in 1946 was convicted 10+5 years of imprisonment. Looga was released in 1956 and then worked in Tartu canned food factory's department in Viljandi as a warehouse keeper. Regiment's headquarters leader August Kolk was arrested in 1948 and was imprisoned in Irkutsk until 1956. The 1st Battalion leader, Captain Aleksander Veelma, was evacuated on August 20, after being wounded, to Germany. In December 1944 he continued battling in the 20th Estonian SS Division. After Germany capitulated he was sent to Uklei camps. From there he managed to get to his family in Geislingen where he was the officer of the Estonian labor company. In 1951 he emigrated to Canada. Captain Veelma was the founding member of the Ottawa Estonian Society and the Ottawa Estonian Fighters' Association. He died in 1990 in Canada. The 2nd Battalion leader, Captain Eduard Ausmees, also went to the West and helped Hamilkar Mengel put together the tetralogy "The Greatest Love". Ausmees died in 1983 in the USA. The 3rd Battalion leader Major Hindpere's exact destiny is unclear. He most likely hid himself after the war in the forest as a forest brother and committed suicide in 1946 in Kõue district so that he couldn't be imprisoned during some NKVD's raid.

Regiment Leader
Major Jaan Tamm Date of Birth: July 6, 1894; Date of Death: July 8, 1977, Estonia

Headquarters Leader
Captain August Kolk October 11, 1902 until …

Aide-de-camp
Lieutenant Endel Rennit April 30, 1911 until September 5, 1966, USA

Regiment's Adjutant
Captain August Kolk October 11, 1902 until …

Headquarters' Adjutant
Lieutenant Eerik Läänsoo December 25, 1911 until …

Regiment's Doctor
Herbert-Johannes Uustalo October 7, 1917 until September 27, 2000, Sweden


Regiment's Veterinarian
Ensign Arnold Rünk January 21, 1909 until …

Regiment's 2nd Veterinarian
August Haak December 10, 1899 until …

Court Officer
Lieutenant Oivo Lahet (check the 6th Company leader)

Headquarters' Company Leader
Senior Lieutenant Armil-Johannes Looga July 7, 1908 until January 23, 1986, Viljandi
Captain August Kolk (check the Regiment's Adjutant)

Pioneer Unit Leader
Ensign Karl-Leopold Saksen December 2, 1922 until …
Lieutenant Elmar Post May 18, 1909 until December 15, 1978, Canada

Shooters' Unit Leader
Lieutenant Aleksander Mõistus November 12, 1908 until …

1st Battalion Leader
Major Aleksander Veelma March 21, 1900 until January 10, 1990, Canada
Lieutenant Eduard Karual (Kaurla) February 1, 1906 until February 5, 1982, Tallinn

Adjutant
Lieutenant Alfred Valdmaa November 27, 1908 until …

Deputy Adjutant
Junior Lieutenant Oskar Lohk (Lohu)

Aide-de-camp
Lieutenant Evald Tammaru December 8, 1907 until December 1986, USA

Doctor
Dr Mihail Kütt February 7, 1915 until October 15, 2004, USA

1st Company Leader
Lieutenant Viktor Rähni February 15, 1914 until February 6, 1975, Canada
Junior Lieutenant Oskar Jürgenson November 25, 1892 until …

2nd Company Leader
Lieutenant Jüri Juurand May 6, 1906 until 1983, Canada
Lieutenant Elmar Soeson August 21, 1904 until August 29, 1944, Tartu

3rd Company Leader
Lieutenant Oskar Roosa

4th Company Leader
Lieutenant Eduard Karula (check the 1st Battalion Leader)
Lieutenant Alfred Valdmaa (check Battalion's Adjutant)

2nd Battalion Leader
Captain Eduard Ausmees August 18, 1902 until March 16, 1983, USA
Senior Lieutenant Armil-Johannes Looga (check Headquarters' Company)

Adjutant
Lieutenant Hans Jams January 7, 1910 until August 19, 1944, Võnnu
Lieutenant Endel Rennit (check Regiment's Aide-de-camp)

Doctor
Lieutenant Henn Roog February 25, 1912 until October 2, 1986, Tallinn
Ensign Theodor Schönberg December 20, 1917 until March 3, 1992, Australia
Ensign Henn Laane September 27, 1904 until September 22, 1944, Baltic Sea, "Moero"

5th Company Leader
Lieutenant Ants Raidmets

6th Company Leader
Lieutenant Mihail Veski October 31, 1902 until June 7, 1989, Canada
Lieutenant Oivo Lahet June 3, 1911 until September 1944, Saaremaa

7th Company Leader
Lieutenant Evald Voldemar Küttis March 24, 1918 until January 20, 1945, Germany

8th Company Leader
Lieutenant Artur Kõlvald August 15, 1902 until August 20, 1944, Taru
Lieutenant Aksel Meldorf June 5, 1907 until April 11, 1949, Germany
Lieutenant Hermann Auendorf 1915 until …

3rd Battalion Leader
Major Ottomar-Raimond Hindpere December 21, 1895 until September 21, 1946, Kõue district

Adjutant
Lieutenant Eerik Varrak October 26, 1909 until May 4, 1946, Väätsa

Aide-de-camp
Junior Lieutenant Edgar Pillov 1913 until …
Lieutenant Felisk Tammeraid (check the 12th Company)

Economy Officer
Lieutenant Evald Põdra March 17, 1910 until 1998

Veterinarian
Doctor Hans Peips May 5, 1909 until May 4, 1989, Viljandi
Lieutenant Mihkel Kuura January 5, 1906 until November 27, 1968, Pärnu

9th Company Leader
Lieutenant Viktor Koop January 7, 1916 until August 31, 1944, Tallinn
Lieutenant Karl Arro … until August 21, 1944, on his way to Taru

10th Company Leader
Lieutenant Jaan Jaakson November 10, 1903 until September 17, 1944, Kavastu

11th Company Leader
Lieutenant Viktor Reimla
Lieutenant Richard Saaliste July 6, 1916 until December 14, 1949, Pärnu County
Lieutenant Raimond Vainlo January 2, 1920 until November 11, 1988, buried in Tallinn

12th Company Leader
Lieutenant Felix Tammeraid allegedly killed in 1944
Lieutenant Bernhard Rätsep March 10, 1914 until …

13th Company (Battery) Leader
Lieutenant Kaarel (Karl) Tölpus July 4, 1903 until September 22, 1944, "Moero"
Lieutenant Valter Koppermann June 1, 1913 until December 3, 1982, USA
Lieutenant Heino Tikk August 8, 1901 until September 4, 1978, Canada

Anti-Tank Unit Leader
Lieutenant Voldemar Karja
Lieutenant Valter Mikiver

Works Cited

  • Jurs, A. Eesti vabadusvõitlejad II maailmasõjas. Toronto, 1987
  • Jõgi, H. and Indrek Zolk. 1941-1945 langenud Eesti ohvitseride nimekiri. Tallinn, 1998
  • Kallas, V. Kahe sõja vahel. Tallinn, 2007
  • Kaalion, V. Avinurme lahing. Tartu, 1998
  • Kirs, E. Kord olin ma röövlite päälik… Ühe Mulgimaa hallparuni elukeerud. Tallinn, 1996
  • Kraft, Ü. Eesti piirikaitserügementide ohvitserkord 1944. aastal
  • The yearbook of Estonian War Museum and General Laidoner Museum of 2006
  • Laar, M. Emajõgi 1944. Tallinn, 2005
  • Laar, M. Isamaa ilu hoieldes. Stockholm, 1997
  • Laar, M. September 1944. Tallinn, 2007
  • Laar, M. Sinimäed 1944. Tallinn, 2006
  • Tamberg, M. Eesti mehed sõjatules. Saku, 1999
  • Leetmaa, M. Sõjas ja ikestatud Eestis. Stockholm, 1979
  • Villako, K. Ajarännak. Mälestused 1944. aasta sügisest tänapäevani. Volumes I and II. Taru, 2001
  • Eesti riik ja rahvas II maailmasõjas. Volume IX. Stockholm, 1960